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However Wiremu Kīngi, a more senior chief, denied that Teira had the right to sell the Waitara land, and war broke out there in March 1860.The principal defences were Kairau and Huirangi, skilfully engineered lines of rifle-pits, trenches and covered walkways.Fierce fighting at close quarters, involving rifles, bayonets, shotgun, hand grenades and tomahawks, took place over the newly built parapet and in the boundary trench and lasted until daylight when British reinforcements arrived from Redoubt No.1.Fresh fighting erupted in 1863In December 1860, Major-General Pratt began operations against a major Māori defensive line called Te Arei ("The barrier") on the west side of the Waitara River, barring the way to the historic hill pā of Pukewairangi In December 1860, Major-General Pratt began operations against a major Māori defensive line called Te Arei ("The barrier") on the west side of the Waitara River, barring the way to the historic hill pā of Pukewairangi.The troops expended 70,000 rounds of rifle ammunition. (Naval Brigade-1; Royal Artillery-2; Royal Engineers-1; 12th Regiment-1; 40th Regiment-12; 65th Regiment-4.). From 22 January, the day before the attack on No.3 Redoubt, Pratt began employing the Royal Engineers to systematically apply the technique of sapping to advance towards Te Arei.Backed with heavy artillery and a force of 900 men, Pratt advanced from Waitara on 29 December towards the Matarikoriko pā, between Puketakauere and the Waitara River, before building a redoubt on the old Kairau pā under heavy day-long fire from bush-covered rifle pits 150m away.At am on 23 January 1861, No.3 Redoubt was stormed by a force of 140 warriors of Ngati Haua, Ngati Maniapoto, Waikato and Te Atiawa, led by Rewi Maniopoto, Epiha Tokohihi and Hapurona.The government accepted the offer and Pākehā settlers looked forward to expanding their small enclave around New Plymouth.British troops were brought in and local volunteers mobilised.In 1859 the minor Te Ātiawa chief Te Teira Manuka offered to sell land at Waitara in north Taranaki to the Crown.After a year of inconclusive fighting that also involved Kīngitanga warriors from Waikato the countryside was devastated and the local economy in tatters.Many in New Plymouth had been itching for an opportunity to take action against Te Ātiawa and other local iwi who they saw as obstructing the progress of the settlement.

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  • ih8people2, 06-May-2016

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    More than 230 people had been killed or wounded and another 120 had died of disease in the besieged town of New Plymouth.